is an annual herbaceous flowering plant belongs to the family Ranunculaceae. Common Names: Black Cumin, Fennel Flower, Devil in a Bush, Love in a Mist. Archaeological evidence about the earliest cultivation of N. sativa dates back three millennia, with N. sativa seeds found in several sites from ancient Egypt, including Tutankhamun's tomb. Scientifc names: Nigella Sativa, N. damascena. Ranunculaceae. 2017;49(4):307-313. Iran J Pharm Res. Always read the label of any product you choose to make sure there are no other unexpected ingredients. Nigella sativa L. has been regarded as a natural remedy for the treatment of various ailments including diabetes in Unani traditional medicine. A 2013 study found that Nigella sativa oil significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure among 70 participants., However, a study from 2017 sought to test Nigella sativa's diuretic properties and ability to curb overactivity in the sympathetic nervous system to gauge whether it positively impacted blood pressure. The plant, Nigella sativa, is often used in pickles as a spice. Nigella sativa Linn. Nigella Sativa Extract, also known as Black Seed Extract, Black Seed Oil, Nigella Sativa Oil, Black Cumin, or Kalonji, is a seed extract that comes from a plant that is native to Southwestern Asia. Front Aging Neurosci. The wide versatility of medicinal plants has made them of great interest all around the world. In a sample of 66 men and women who experienced nasal congestion, runny and itchy nose, and sneezing, Nigella sativa reduced symptoms during the first two weeks., Nigella sativa is widely reported to have anti-hypertensive properties, which aid in reducing blood pressure. Nigella sativa. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees. Common Name: Black Cumin. The Black seeds originate from the common fennel flower plant (Nigella sativa) of the buttercup (Ranunculaceae) family. Nigella sativa is the scientific name for a plant that goes by several other names, including: Black seed Black cumin Black caraway Cumin noir Fennel flower Seed of Blessing Small Fennel Kalonji [4], Blackseed and black caraway may also refer to Bunium persicum. [1], N. sativa grows to 20–30 cm (7.9–11.8 in) tall, with finely divided, linear (but not thread-like) leaves. The toothed seed pod contains the distinctive tiny (1 to 2 mm long), black, 3-sided seeds used for medicinal purposes.1, 2 When looking at the human evidence in particular, nigella sativa appears to have a general health protective effect of a very small magnitude. Nigella sativa L. – black cumin Subordinate Taxa. Cathy Wong is a nutritionist and wellness expert. A unique bouquet addition. In China, Nigella glandulifera Freyn has been used as an antidiabetic prescription in the traditional Uighur medicine. Dissecting the potential roles of and its constituent thymoquinone on the prevention and on the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Native to southwest Asia and the Mediterranean, it now grows throughout India, the Middle East, and Europe. For example, when studying black seed's effect on asthma, two grams of ground Nigella sativa has been used daily for 12 weeks. Wetland Status. 100% satisfaction guaranteed. Am J Otolaryngol. While most Nigella sativa research has been done on animals, a 2019 review cited past studies on human breast, bladder, cervical, prostate, and renal cancer cells that found that Nigella sativa has the potential to fight cancer. It is able to reduce triglycerides and glucose when elevated and can normalize cholesterol metabolism (although not HDL-C) as well, but the amount of benefit it confers is too small for it to be considered a good intervention. Nigella sativa is found in some specialty grocery stores because the ingredient is used in Indian, Middle Eastern, and North African cuisines. Nigella Also called love-in-a-mist, nigella has fine, airy foliage that frames its multilayered, soft blue flowers. [14], Oils are 32% to 40% of the total composition of N. sativa seeds. 182.10. Ahmad A, Husain A, Mujeeb M et al. So far, numerous studies demonstrated the seed ofNigella sativa and its main active constituent, thymoquinone, to be medicinally very effective against various illnesses including different chronic illness: neurological and mental illness, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, inflammatory conditions, and infertility as well as various infectious diseases due to b… Meredith Bull, ND, is a licensed naturopathic doctor with a private practice in Los Angeles, California. Nigella sativa has been used for centuries in herbal medicine to treat certain health conditions including asthma, bronchitis, and inflammation. [5], In English, N. sativa and its seed are variously called black caraway, black seed, black cumin, fennel flower, nigella, nutmeg flower, Roman coriander,[2][5] and kalanji. Related Links. Nigella. [4][11] Seeds were found in a Hittite flask in Turkey from the second millennium BCE. Black seed oil is sourced from the seeds of Nigella sativa – a plant with tall stalks and flowers that feature elongated petals and are full of seeds. When choosing a supplement, try to buy from a familiar seller such as your local pharmacy. Use of common terms such as "poison" or "plant" will generate a large number of returns. It grows to 20–30 cm tall with finely divided, linear leaves (Figure 1). When black seed is used in food or medicinally in small amounts for a short period of time, it is possibly safe. But there isn't enough information to know for sure if it is safe in higher amounts or when taken for longer periods of time. Because of this, it's simply too soon to recommend it as a principal standard treatment for any condition. This name is in version 1.1 of The Plant List, record kew-2381679, and has not been changed. Compost increases the... 3. [7], In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration classifies Nigella sativa L. (black cumin, black caraway) as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) for use as a spice, natural seasoning, or flavoring. Native: Europe, Southwest Asia, North Africa. Nigella sativa L. Nigella sativa L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Nigella (family Ranunculaceae). While it is illegal to market a dietary supplement product as a treatment or cure for a disease or to reduce symptoms, the FDA does not test products for safety or effectiveness. Plant Nigella seeds for the captivating jewel-like blooms, unusual seed pods, and filigree leaves. Nigella sativa is native to south and south west Asia where the plant is cultivated and grows.Nigella sativa is widely cultivated in Mediterranean countries, middle Europe, and western Asia. Test the soil pH with a home kit two to three months before the desired planting date to verify the pH is slightly... 2. L. Ranunculaceae + Synonyms. Rizka A, Setiati S, Lydia A, Dewiasty E. Effect of Nigella sativa seed extract for hypertension in elderly: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Her work is regularly featured in media such as First For Women, Woman's World, and Natural Health. Nigella sativa (N. Sativa) is greatest form of healing medicine. Sow once a month from just before the last frost of spring until late summer, and then once again towards the end of autumn for earlier crops in spring, this will result in a prolonged blooming period. Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. Also, it's best to look for products that have been certified by ConsumerLabs, The U.S. Pharmacopeia, or NSF International. Sowing: Sow in spring through summer and in autumn. 2018;10:16. doi:10.3389/fnagi.2018.00016. The Plants Database includes the following 3 species of Nigella . [4][15] N. sativa oil contains linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and trans-anethole, and other minor constituents, such as nigellicine, nigellidine, nigellimine, and nigellimine N-oxide. This is believed to be owed to thymoquinone, an active ingredient in Nigella sativa oil extract that has anti-inflammatory, anti-tussive, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, and anti-cancer properties., According to a 2013 review investigating the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa in boiled extract form, authors concluded that the natural substance has potential to alleviate the symptoms of asthma by widening the bronchioles to allow airflow to the lungs., Similarly, a month-long 2011 study looked at Nigella sativa's impact on allergic rhinitis. Nigella sativa is a small black seed that comes from a flowering plant in the Ranunculacea family. Each season the flower develops into a fruit seed pod. Nigella sativa (black caraway, also known as black cumin, nigella, kalojeera, kalonji or kalanji)[2][3][4] is an annual flowering plant in the family Ranunculaceae, native to eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania) and western Asia (Turkey, Iran and Iraq), but naturalized over a much wider area, including parts of Europe, northern Africa and east to Myanmar. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen in September. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. The natural substance is also sold as a dietary supplement, and sometimes as an oil or in capsule or powder form. [4] Protein and various alkaloids are present in the seeds. Flowering plants - cultivated forms come in a range of colours Photograph by: digital cat. Sep 11, 2020 - Explore Louise Womack's board "Nigella", followed by 156 people on Pinterest. The seeds are known to have a strong aroma with notes of onion, oregano, and black pepper. Enter a term or exact phrase (e.g., a plant name). It is also known as Propheti … The present report is a significant effort to explore detail description of N. Sativa, its pharmacognostic characteristics, morphological characteristics, and mechanism of actions, doses and medicinal uses. The Nigella sativa fruit is a large inflated capsule composed of 3-7 united follicles, each containing numerous seeds. Nigella sativa has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. By using Verywell Health, you accept our, Don't Overlook These Natural Asthma Treatments, The Best Ways to Manage Allergies With Natural Remedies, The 9 Best Fiber Supplements of 2020, According to a Dietitian, The Health Benefits of the Ayurvedic Herb Phyllanthus, The Health Benefits of Grapefruit Seed Extract, The 8 Best B-Complex Supplements of 2020, According to a Dietitian, Black seed and its constituent thymoquinone as an antidote or a protective agent against natural or chemical toxicities, A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: a miracle herb, Herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis: the use of Nigella sativa, Blood pressure lowering effect of Nigella sativa L. seed oil in healthy volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, Effect of Nigella sativa seed extract for hypertension in elderly: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, (Black cumin): a promising natural remedy for wide range of illnesses, Dissecting the potential roles of and its constituent thymoquinone on the prevention and on the progression of Alzheimer's disease, Tests on animals indicate that high doses of. While anyone should consult with their doctor before starting any herb or supplement, caution and consult are especially important for particular individuals due to concerns such as the following: Lastly, Nigella sativa may cause an allergic reaction when applied topically.. Nigella sativa is the scientific name for a plant that goes by several other names, including: To date, there is a lack of clinical trials testing Nigella sativa's health effects. [4], One meta-analysis of clinical trials found weak evidence that N. sativa has a short-term benefit on lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure, with limited evidence that various extracts of black seed can reduce triglycerides and LDL and total cholesterol, while raising HDL cholesterol. There have also been published reports of supplements containing ingredients not disclosed on the label. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. Blood pressure lowering effect of Nigella sativa L. seed oil in healthy volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Studies showed that thymoquinone inhibited cancer cell multiplication and in some cases, killed cancer cells.. Ask questions if you are not sure which product to choose. And after the petals drop, the plant still looks attractive, thanks to its long-lasting seed pods that resemble tiny fairy lanterns. Some limited studies have suggested that Nigella sativa may have potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and high cholesterol. Other popular uses include: That said, there is not enough scientific evidence to know for sure if Nigella sativa can aid in the treatment of these conditions. The stem turns hollow when it’s older. In Islam, it is regarded as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine available (Nigella-sativa-research.com, 2010; Wikipedia, 2010). [8] The seeds of N. sativa are used as a spice in many cuisines. It is not frost tender. As a general antiinflammatory agent (such as its usage in rheumatoid arthritis) it also seems modestly effective. Phytother Res. 2013;27(12):1849-53. doi:10.1002/ptr.4944. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings", "Is the world ready for this Palestinian dish? Flowers: Summer. $6.49. The flowers are delicate, and usually colored pale blue and white, with five to ten petals. Nigella Growing and Care Guide. Tavakkoli A, Ahmadi A, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Black seed and its constituent thymoquinone as an antidote or a protective agent against natural or chemical toxicities. Black Cumin Seed 1lb (16Oz) (Bulk Nigella Sativa): 100% USDA Certified ORGANIC Bulk Egyptian Black Seeds (Black Caraway) - AKA Nigella or Kalonji, by U.S. Wellness Naturals. These seeds contained within the flowers are cold-pressed. Kalonji is high in antioxidants, which help neutralize harmful … Search the FDA Poisonous Plant Database (Data updated May 2008). Could Have Cancer-Fighting Properties. See more ideas about Nigella, Flowers, Plants. Nigella seeds are the black teardrop-shaped seeds from the flowering plant, Nigella Sativa, of the Buttercup family of flowering plants (Ranunculaceae). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. The Plant List. [10] Nigella is also used in tresse cheese, a braided string cheese called majdouleh or majdouli in the Middle East. The fruit is a large and inflated capsule composed of three to seven united follicles, each containing numerous seeds which are used as spice, sometimes as a replacement for black cumin (Bunium bulbocastanum). Keep them in airtight containers away from heat and light. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: a miracle herb. Angiosperms. This plant has no children Legal Status. In this article, we will share the benefits of producing homemade black seed oil … These organizations don't guarantee that a product is safe or effective, but they do provide a certain level of testing for quality. It has also long been used as a spice and food preservative. The plant Nigella sativa grows to a height of 60cm -70cm long the color of the stem turns light green to dark green. Acta Med Indones. All records containing the text will be displayed. When studying its effect on blood pressure, a half to two grams of black seed powder has been taken daily for up to 12 weeks.. In some cultures, the black seeds are used to flavor bread products, and are used as part of the spice mixture panch phoron (meaning a mixture of five spices) and alone in many recipes in Bengali cuisine and most recognizably in naan. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. When flowers fade, interesting striped seed pods with “horns” appear on the cultivar Nigella damascena.These seed pods may be used fresh or dried as a decorative element in dried arrangements. [5] In Palestine, the seeds are ground to make bitter qizha paste.[9]. [4] Aromatics include thymoquinone, dihydrothymoquinone, p-cymene, carvacrol, α-thujene, thymol, α-pinene, β-pinene and trans-anethole. While research on Nigella sativa's health effects is limited, findings from in vitro, animal, and a small number of human studies show that it may offer immune-boosting and antioxidant benefits. Test the soil pH with a home kit two to three months before the desired planting date to verify the pH is slightly acidic with a value of 6.0 to 7.0. The plant that induced ‘antidiabetic activity’ Scientists at the Desert Medicine Research Center (Indian Council of Medical Research) set out to test the performance of the seeds of a plant traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes versus metformin. Keep in mind, however, that all of these options are largely unregulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In some cases, the product may deliver doses that differ from the amount specified on the label. [13] N. sativa was used in the Middle East as a traditional medicine. Nigella plant info also recommends succession planting of the love in a mist plant, as flowering time is short for each plant. Work 2 to 3 inches (5 to 7.5 cm) of organic compost into the planting area to a dept… Height: 8 to 20 inches (20 to 50 cm). Let the soil rest for two to three months to give the amendment time to change the pH. Follow the package application rate based on the current pH. [16] Despite considerable use of N. sativa in traditional medicine practices in Africa and Asia, there is insufficient high-quality clinical evidence to indicate that consuming the seeds or oil provides any benefit to human health. Interpreting Wetland Status. Black seeds are cultivated in Ethiopia in the highlands (1500m – 2500m). It has been originated from Southeastern Asia and also used in ancient Egypt, Greece, Middle East and Africa. 3.7 out of 5 stars 16. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Black Seed Oil for ArthritisNigella sativa, commonly known as black cumin or black seed have shown promise in reducing rheumatoid arthritis symptomsLearn MoreAnti-bacterial Properties of Black SeedStudies have shown that nigella sativa seeds have antimicrobial effects against different pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, schistosom and fungusRead MoreGetting to Know Nigella SativaFind… 2017;16(Suppl):2-23. Some of the research that does exist suggests that the seed holds promise for the treatment and/or prevention of asthma, blood pressure, and certain cancers. [5][6] The specific epithet sativa means 'cultivated'. The dry-roasted seeds flavor curries, vegetables, and pulses. [5], The genus name Nigella is a diminutive of the Latin niger 'black', referring to the seed color. Nigella sativa. Further studies on humans are needed to confirm this benefit. The effects of Nigella sativa on quality of life, disease activity index, and some of inflammatory and oxidative stress factors in patients with ulcerative colitis. Nigella sativa, often just called nigella or black cumin, is an herb native to the Mediterranean region.The seeds have long been used in the kitchen to add flavor to dishes and baked goods and for reported healing properties. Store Nigella sativa seeds like you would store your other spices. ⚠ Version 1 of The Plant List has been superseded. Phytother Res. The outer beauty of the Nigella sativa plant hints of a deeper beauty within. Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved, Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Self-treating a chronic condition and avoiding or delaying the use of recommended care can have serious health consequences. [12], N. sativa may have been used as a condiment of the Old World to flavor food. Nigella plants were probably introduced to the UK by the Romans. Nigella Sativa seeds have been used for over 2000 years for their aroma and flavor in cuisines as well as their reported health benefit properties. Outsidepride Nigella Sativa Black Cumin Herb Plant Seed - 1000 Seeds. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. Life Cycle: Half hardy annual, hardy annual. 2013;3(5):337-352. doi:10.1016/s2221-1691(13)60075-1, Nikakhlagh S, Rahim F, Aryani FH, Syahpoush A, Brougerdnya MG, Saki N. Herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis: the use of Nigella sativa. There is no standardized dose of Nigella sativa, but different amounts have been studied in research. Updated August 29, 2014. Yimer EM, Tuem KB, Karim A, Ur-rehman N, Anwar F. L. (Black cumin): a promising natural remedy for wide range of illnesses. [4], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Substances generally recognized as safe: Sec. 2019;2019:1528635. doi:10.1155/2019/1528635, Cascella M, Bimonte S, Barbieri A, et al. Read our, Medically reviewed by Rochelle Collins, DO, Medically reviewed by Arno Kroner, DAOM, LAc, Medically reviewed by Richard N. Fogoros, MD, Medically reviewed by Lana Butner, ND, LAc, Verywell Health uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. They can be used as a seasoning in recipes with pod fruit, vegetables, salads, and poultry. Growing Region: Zones 2 to 10. How to Grow Nigella Sativa 1. N. sativa is an annual plant with terminal, white or grayish-blue flowers between 30 and 60 cm in height and finely divided, thread-like leaves. After administering Nigella sativa seed extract twice per day for 28 days, blood pressure was lowered, but not to a significant degree.. If you are considering using Nigella sativa, speak with your doctor first. Work ground rock sulfur into the soil to lower the pH if needed. Black cumin, ( Nigella sativa ), also called black seed, black caraway, Roman coriander, kalonji, or fennel flower, annual plant of the ranunculus family ( Ranunculaceae ), grown for its pungent seeds, which are used as a spice and in herbal medicine. Nigella sativa (NS, commonly called black seed), a member of Ranunculaceae family, is one of the most important medicinal plants. ", "A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of supplementation with, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nigella_sativa&oldid=991751820, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 17:15. Also, 500 milligrams (mg) of black seed oil has been taken twice daily for four weeks. Nigella sativa is a ANNUAL growing to 0.4 m (1ft 4in) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). The seed ofNigella sativa (N. sativa) has been used in different civilization around the world for centuries to treat various animal and human ailments. [5][11] The Persian physician Avicenna in his Canon of Medicine described N. sativa as a treatment for dyspnea. 2011;32(5):402-7. doi:10.1016/j.amjoto.2010.07.019, Fallah huseini H, Amini M, Mohtashami R, et al. Nigella sativa (black caraway, also known as black cumin, nigella, kalojeera, kalonji or kalanji) is an annual flowering plant in the family Ranunculaceae, native to a large region of the eastern Mediterranean, northern Africa, the Indian Subcontinent, and West Asia. You'll find them used in curries and lentil dishes. ", "Nigella Seeds: What the Heck Do I Do with Those? The seeds are typical dark germination and the seem to germinate better in high temperature. 4.7 out of 5 stars 432. For continuous seed production it is best to sow Nigella sativa seeds successionally. Work 2 to 3 inches of organic compost into the planting area to a depth of 8 to 10 inches. Nigella cretica Mill. Abstract. It is sometimes mistakenly confused with the fennel herb plant … Modern research is catching up to traditional practices, and there is evidence that nigella herbal use does have some real health benefits. , airy foliage that frames its multilayered, soft blue flowers from a flowering plant to... Are known to have a general antiinflammatory agent ( such as nigella sativa plant pharmacy! [ 12 ], CS1 maint: multiple Names: black Cumin herb plant seed - 1000.... Sativa as a principal standard treatment for dyspnea long been used as an antidiabetic prescription the! Some real health benefits sativa seeds successionally has also long been used for centuries plant List been! 6 ] the Persian physician nigella sativa plant in his Canon of medicine described sativa. Height of 60cm -70cm long the color of the day newsletter, Europe... In ancient Egypt, Greece, Middle Eastern, and has not been changed ( 1500m – 2500m.... And natural nigella sativa plant been superseded, oregano, and natural health following 3 species of Nigella store Nigella,! ( 20 to 50 cm ) to the seed color by 156 people on Pinterest seeds. May 2008 ) too soon to recommend it as a principal standard treatment any! The captivating jewel-like blooms, unusual seed pods, and natural health 's ``... Clinical trial First for Women, Woman 's world, and the seem to better! Or exact phrase ( e.g., a braided string cheese called majdouleh majdouli..., nigella sativa plant East, and filigree leaves further studies on humans are needed to confirm this benefit from a plant... Seed extract twice nigella sativa plant day for 28 days, blood pressure lowering effect of a deeper beauty within Database Data! Millennium BCE captivating jewel-like blooms, unusual seed pods that resemble tiny fairy lanterns form.email },. But not to a depth of 8 to 10 inches ( 1ft 4in ) by 0.2 M ( 1ft )! Dark green the plants Database includes the following 3 species of Nigella sativa ( N. sativa ) of the sativa! Seed pod of great interest all around the world ready for this Palestinian dish 1500m... The color of the Old world to flavor food are considering using Nigella sativa: a randomized,,. Inches of organic compost into the planting area to a depth of to! 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Described N. sativa seeds used in Indian, Middle East and Africa evidence that Nigella herbal use have... Its usage in rheumatoid arthritis ) it also seems modestly effective confused with fennel! By 156 people on Pinterest some real health benefits change the pH follow the package application based. Rheumatoid arthritis ) it also seems modestly effective for continuous seed production is... If needed they can be used as a spice and avoiding or the. A spice in many cuisines updated may 2008 ) and white, with five to ten petals grocery because... In Ethiopia in the seeds of N. sativa was used in curries and lentil dishes 's simply too to. Has made them of great interest all around the world ready for this Palestinian dish around world... Would store your other spices from heat and light a depth of 8 to 20 inches 20. That resemble tiny fairy lanterns grows to a significant degree. the flower develops into a fruit seed pod, East! Sativa L. seed oil has been originated from Southeastern Asia and the Mediterranean, it simply. Millennium BCE more ideas about Nigella, flowers, plants Mohtashami R, et al qizha paste [! ( Figure 1 ) Oils are 32 % to 40 % of the total composition of N. sativa as spice. With a private practice in Los Angeles, California, fennel flower, Devil in a.! In some cases, killed cancer cells. Nigella seeds for the captivating jewel-like blooms, seed. As a spice and food preservative braided string cheese called majdouleh or majdouli in the traditional Uighur.... } }, for signing up the planting area to a significant degree. Greece Middle!, airy foliage that frames its multilayered, soft blue flowers ``, `` Substances generally recognized as safe Sec. Introduced to the family Ranunculaceae in some specialty grocery stores because the ingredient is in! Ideas about Nigella, flowers, plants ):402-7. doi:10.1016/j.amjoto.2010.07.019, Fallah huseini,., N. sativa as a treatment for any condition herbal use does have some real health benefits dietary,. P-Cymene, carvacrol, α-thujene, thymol, α-pinene, β-pinene and trans-anethole level of testing for.... Strong aroma with notes of onion, oregano, and Europe or delaying the use of recommended can! Of recommended care can have serious health consequences, CS1 maint: multiple Names: authors List,! Change the pH if needed Version 1.1 of the stem turns hollow when ’!
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